The aim of the project is – at two levels: at the level of basic as well as applied research – to enrich the knowledge of the ability to learn and to identify part of the processes constituting this ability. The ability to learn will be researched from the point of view of cognitive paradigm with the focus on executive functions and their presence in the process of learning. One of the project deliverables is to validate The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan & Kramer, 2001) – a complex measure of executive functioning. It is a set of test tasks based on the latest concepts of cognitive functioning; and in the Slovak environment, it is a pure novelty. Its adaptation and validation will be followed by its standardisation with the focus on two groups: 9 to 10-year-old gifted pupils and their contemporaries from socially disadvantaging environment with Roma as their native language. The outcome will be a modern, adapted test of executive functioning, prepared for broad use in psychological and educational practice and research. At the level of basic research, the relationship between child’s ability to learn and executive functioning will be analysed by multivariate statistical modelling. Based on that knowledge, a series of tasks for the stimulation of pupil’s executive functions will be consequently constituted.